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# Normalize and expand rules

This section will cover the rules that are applied when normalizing and/or expanding functions. But before we start on
that, take a look at the example below which explains shortly how functions are handled internally within MUMIE.

Example:
Take the following function: $$x^4 \cdot (3 + 2)$$. To enter this function into MUMIE, you would type the following:
x^4*(3+2), which in turn could be graphically displayed as the image below. MUMIE uses the following terminology regarding the tree you see above.

• node referring to a box in the tree
• operation every node, together with its children, can be referred to as an operation.
The example above consists of the following operations
• Multiplication Operation (or simply MultiplicationOp)
• PowerOp,
• VariableOp and
• NumberOp.

Operations can be combined together to make more complex operations. The formula used above can therefor also be referred to as an operation.

Every node has the following properties:

• factor
• exponent

and based on the type, possibly a:

• base (if it is a NumberOp)
• identifier (if it is a VariableOp)

Keeping this in our mind, we can take a look at the rules being applied when normalizing and/or expanding functions.
When normalizing/expanding, all rules will be applied until a stable state of the function has been reached, resulting in a normalized/expanded function. The rules for
normalization and expanding are shown below (showing the Class name of the Java-code in brackets), along with several examples for each rule.

# Rules for normalizing functions

## Collapse factors of a variable (NormalizeMultRule)

$$3 \cdot 5 \cdot x$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$15x$$
$$3 \cdot 5 \cdot x + 2 \cdot 4 \cdot y + 2 \cdot 3$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$15x+8y+2 \cdot 3$$

## Collapse multiplications and additions (CollapseEqualOpsRule)

$$4+(3-4)$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$4+3-4$$
$$3-(-4+x)$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$3+4-x$$

For multiplication:

$$3 \cdot (4 \cdot 9 \cdot x)$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$3 \cdot 4 \cdot 9 \cdot x$$
$$\frac{3}{\frac{1}{4} \cdot x}$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$\frac{3 \cdot 4}{x \cdot 1}$$

## Collapse powers of i (CollapsePowerOfIRule)

$$i^2$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$-1$$
$$i^8$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$1$$
$$i^{-7}$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$i$$

## Evaluate expressions involving only numbers (PropagateConstantsRule)

$$12.0+2.0^{3.0} \cdot 3$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$36$$

## Evaluate expressions having zero as a factor (RemoveZeroMultRule)

$$0 \cdot 3$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$0$$
$$0 \cdot x$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$0$$

## Evaluate powers with zero as exponent (RemoveZeroExponentRule)

$$2x^{0}$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$2 \cdot 1$$

$$y+2x + z - x$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$y+x+z$$

## Collapse equal children belonging to multiplication operations (SummarizeEqualMultChildrenRule)

$$x \cdot y \cdot x$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$x^2 \cdot y$$
$$y \cdot x^2 \cdot z \cdot x^{-1}$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$y \cdot x \cdot z$$

## Remove neutral elements (RemoveNeutralElementRule)

Only handles the following three cases

$$x \cdot 1$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$x$$
$$x \cdot -1$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$-x$$
$$x + 0$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$x$$

## Collapse powers (CollapsePowerRule)

Implements the following two rules:

$$(a^b)^c$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$a^{bc}$$
$$e^x$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$\exp(x)$$

## Collapse powers when rational (CollapseRationalPowerRule)

If the node is a PowerOp with a rational exponent and the denominator of the exponent is n != 1 a n-th root node will be added as parent and the child will get the numerator as exponent.

$$x^{\frac{3}{2}}$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$\sqrt{x^3}$$

## Simplify constants of single nodes (NormalizeConstantRule)

Sets exponent to $$1$$ and factor to $$+/- 1$$ and calculates its base.

$$(-2)^3$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$-8$$

## Collapse function nodes that have their inverse function as child (CollapseInverseFunctionRule)

This rule only works on functions with a definded inverse function.

$$\cos(\arccos(x))$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$x$$
$$\ln(\exp(x))$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$x$$

## Collapse function nodes for powers and n-roots (CollapseNrtRule)

This is a special case of the rule above.

$$\sqrt{x^2}$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$\vert x \vert$$

## Symmetry of elementary functions (HandleFunctionSymmetryRule)

Currently only applies to the following functions: @abs, acos, asin, atan, cos, cosh, n-root (for uneven n), sinh, sin and tan@. The rule is dependent on whether the function is symmetric or antisymmetric.

$$\sin(-x)$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$-\sin(x)$$
$$\vert -x \vert$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$\vert x \vert$$

$$3 \cdot (-x + 4)$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$-3x + 12$$

# Rules for expanding functions

## Distributive law (ExpandProductRule)

$$4 \cdot (-b-3)$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$4 \cdot (-b) + 4 \cdot (-3)$$

## Expand data in single node (ExpandInternalDataRule)

$$-x^6$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$-1 \cdot x^6$$

## Expands a power of products (ExpandPowerRule)

$$(2 \cdot x)^4$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$2^4 \cdot x^4$$

## Expands a power of sums (ExpandPowerOfSumRule)

$$(2+x)^4$$ $$\Rightarrow$$ $$(2+x) \cdot (2+x) \cdot (2+x) \cdot (2+x)$$